Study: Most Black and Latino Adults Hesitant to Take a COVID-19 Vaccine

As we grow closer to developing a COVID-19 vaccine, some uncertainty lies ahead.

Several new studies show that older Americans, especially Latino and Black adults, are skeptical of the safety and efficacy of a COVID-19 vaccine.

The results indicate mistrust between communities of color and public health officials, likely due to historical racism in health care and implicit bias.

This mistrust concerns health care officials, as a vaccine is key to controlling the pandemic.

“Effective vaccines will be crucial to getting this pandemic under control and preventing serious illness and death from COVID-19, especially among people over 50 and those with underlying health issues,” said Dr. Preeti Malani, the poll’s director and a specialist in geriatrics and infectious diseases at Michigan Medicine, according to MarketWatch.

As drugmakers continue to move forward in vaccine development, public health officials must work to restore trust with Latino and Black communities.

About the COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Studies

Several recent studies have measured Americans’ hesitance to taking an eventual COVID-19 vaccine.

The University of Michigan National Poll on Healthy Aging asked a national sample of adults ages 50–80 about their willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine.

They found several key findings:

  • 34% of adults were unsure about or don’t want to get the vaccine
  • 86% of Latinos and 93% of Black people said they would not want to receive a vaccine as soon as possible
  • 46% of adults would like to wait to get the vaccine until others receive it

Another study by the COVID Collaborative, a nonprofit coalition made up of Langer Research Associates, Unidos US, and the NAACP, measured hesitancy about the safety of a COVID-19 vaccine in Black and Latino communities.

Their findings showed:

  • 86% of Black people and 66% of Latinos do not believe the vaccine will be safe
  • 82% of Black people and 60% of Latinos do not trust that the vaccine will be effective
  • The majority of Latino (66%) and Black people (72%) are likely to trust their community leaders and health care providers when it comes to a vaccine

These results are worrisome to public health officials, especially as Latino and Black communities have been hit the hardest by COVID-19. In order for Americans to reach a safe level of immunity, the majority of people must take the vaccine.

It will be vital for public health officials to educate the public on the safety and efficacy of a COVID-19 vaccine and allow for distribution through local communities.

COVID-19 Vaccine Developers Make Headway

The results of these surveys become increasingly important in the next month as the development of a COVID-19 vaccine continues.

Several drugmakers have made huge strides in developing a safe and successful vaccine.

Moderna, Pfizer, and AstraZeneca have announced successful vaccine trials and are now in the process of receiving authorization from the Food and Drug Administration to use the vaccine.

“Pfizer applied for emergency use authorization on Nov. 9 for its COVID-19 vaccine. The FDA will hold its advisory committee to discuss that application on Dec. 10,” according to NPR.

Moderna announced on Nov. 30, 2020, that it would also seek authorization from the FDA.

“[Moderna] concludes the vaccine is 94% effective — and strongly protects against serious illness. Based on these latest findings, the company plans to submit an application for emergency use authorization to the Food and Drug Administration today,” according to NPR.

AstraZeneca also announced encouraging progress with their vaccine trial, but due to some conflicting results on the efficacy and dosage, the drugmaker has not yet sought FDA approval.

Once one or more of these vaccines are approved by the FDA for emergency use, the companies can begin distributing vaccine doses across the country.

The COVID-19 vaccine is expected to go to the most vulnerable groups before being distributed to the general population.

“The first shots of the two vaccines are likely to go to certain groups, including health care workers; essential workers like police officers; people in other critical industries; and employees and residents in nursing homes,” according to The New York Times.

Although much depends on the FDA’s approval of the vaccines, some experts predict the first doses of a COVID-19 vaccine could be distributed to health care workers as early as late December.

Encouraging results from vaccine developers is good news. But a vaccine is only helpful if the majority of Americans will take it.

Skepticism about vaccine safety may prevent people of color from taking a vaccine.

Mistrust of COVID-19 Vaccine Stems from Discrimination

Why are people of color more skeptical of a COVID-19 vaccine than white people?

It may be due to historical trauma from events, such as the Tuskegee Experiment.

“Black Americans still bear the psychological scars of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study that began in the 1930s and lasted through the 1970s. Researchers on that study withheld treatment from uneducated Black men who had syphilis, and never told them they had the disease. Distrust of health care workers and clinical trials among Black Americans prevails to the present day,” according to MarketWatch.

Both Latino and Black communities have a high mistrust in the government due to experiences with racism and discrimination.

Unfortunately, these instances of racism are still happening today.

Implicit bias has led to many disparities in how doctors treat people of color, such as:

  • Latino men are less likely to receive treatment for high-risk prostate cancer than white men. Uninsured non-Latino white men were 37% less likely to receive definitive treatment than those with insurance, and uninsured Latinos were 66% less likely to undergo definitive treatment compared to their insured counterparts.
  • Latinas and other pregnant women of color face discrimination from healthcare providers. This is due not only due to their race, but their socioeconomic background as well.
  • White male doctors are less likely to prescribe pain medications to Black patients than white patients.
  • Latino and Black patients are less likely than white patients to receive prescriptions for certain medications in an emergency room.

When people of color experience instances of discrimination or bias in the doctor’s office, they become mistrustful and less likely to seek preventative care.

All of this impacts Latino and Black people’s willingness to get a COVID-19 vaccine.

How Can Public Health Officials Rebuild Trust ahead of the COVID-19 Vaccine?

A COVID-19 vaccine can help save lives and may be the only way we can return to normal life.

In order for that to happen, public health officials must work to promote safety and efficacy of an eventual vaccine in a way that is specific to communities of color.

For Latino communities, that means uplifting Latino community leaders.

“Because of the positive correlation between Latinx identity and vaccine intention, and because Latinx elected officials in one’s community are more likely to be trusted than white elected officials, efforts to promote uptake should leverage voices from within the Latinx community and should reinforce the notion that vaccination is a responsibility that helps the Latinx community at large,” according to the COVID Collaborative study.

For Black communities, that means acknowledging harm done in the past.

“The negative correlation between Black identity and vaccine intention suggests that education efforts should work to acknowledge the harm that historical vaccination efforts have caused (notably, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study), while making pointed connections between core values within the Black community and the benefits of vaccination. Specifically, efforts should aim to highlight how vaccination can save Black lives and strengthen Black communities,” according to the COVID Collaborative study.

It will be vital for public health officials to highlight how a vaccine will strengthen all communities, specifically communities of color who have been severely impacted by COVID-19.

Transparency and honest messaging will also be important for increasing trust from those who are skeptical.

“Our findings point to a strong need to communicate effectively and transparently about how well the vaccines work, the safeguards built in to protect the safety of recipients, and the public health importance of widespread vaccination starting with priority groups,” said Dr. Malani, according to MarketWatch.

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